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Timeline of Space Travel

1950s

Sputnik 1 – First Earth orbiter
Luna 2 – First lunar impact

1957

  • Soviet Union Sputnik 1 – 4 October 1957 – First Earth orbiter
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 2 – 3 November 1957 – Earth orbiter, first animal in orbit, a dog named Laika

1958

  • United States Explorer 1 – 1 February 1958 – Earth orbiter; first American orbiter, discovered Van Allen radiation belts
  • United States Vanguard 1 – 17 March 1958 – Earth orbiter

1959

  • Soviet Union Luna 1 – 2 January 1959 – First lunar flyby (attempted lunar impact?)
  • United States Pioneer 4 – 3 March 1959 – Lunar flyby
  • Soviet Union Luna 2 – 12 September 1959 – First lunar impact
  • Soviet Union Luna 3 – 4 October 1959 – Lunar flyby; First images of far side of Moon

1960s

Vostok 1 – First manned Earth orbiter
Mariner 2 – First Venus flyby
Luna 9 – First lunar lander
Venera 4 – First Venus atmospheric probe
Zone 5 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth
Apollo 8 – First manned lunar orbiter
Apollo 11 – First manned lunar landing

1960

  • United States Pioneer 5 – 11 March 1960 – Interplanetary space investigations

1961

  • Soviet Union Sputnik 7 – 4 February 1961 – Attempted Venus impact (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Venera 1 – 12 February 1961 – Venus flyby (contact lost)
  • Soviet Union Vostok 1 – 12 April 1961 – First manned Earth orbiter
  • United States Mercury-Redstone 3 – 5 May 1961 – First American in space
  • United States Ranger 1 – 23 August 1961 – Attempted lunar test flight
  • United States Ranger 2 – 18 November 1961 – Attempted lunar test flight

1962

  • United States Ranger 3 – 26 January 1962 – Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon)
  • United States Mercury-Atlas 6 – 20 February 1962 – First American manned Earth orbiter
  • United States Ranger 4 – 23 April 1962 – Lunar impact (but unintentionally hit lunar farside and returned no data)
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 19 – 25 August 1962 – Attempted Venus lander (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Mariner 2 – 27 August 1962 – First successful planetary encounterFirst successful Venus flyby
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 20 – 1 September 1962 – Attempted Venus lander (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 21 – 12 September 1962 – Attempted Venus flyby (exploded)
  • United States Ranger 5 – 18 October 1962 – Attempted lunar impact (missed Moon)
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 22 – 24 October 1962 – Attempted Mars flyby (exploded)
  • Soviet Union Mars 1 – 1 November 1962 – Mars flyby (contact lost)
  • Soviet Union Sputnik 24 – 4 November 1962 – Attempted Mars lander (broke up)

1963

  • Soviet Union Sputnik 25 – 4 January 1963 – Attempted lunar lander (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Luna 4 – 2 April 1963 – Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon)
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 21 – 11 November 1963 – Attempted Venera test flight?

1964

  • United States Ranger 6 – 30 January 1964 – Lunar impact (cameras failed)
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 27 – 27 March 1964 – Attempted Venus flyby (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Zond 1 – 2 April 1964 – Venus flyby (contact lost)
  • United States Ranger 7 – 28 July 1964 – Lunar impact
  • United States Mariner 3 – 5 November 1964 – Attempted Mars flyby (failed to attain correct trajectory)
  • United States Mariner 4 – 28 November 1964 – First Mars flyby
  • Soviet Union Zond 2 – 30 November 1964 – Mars flyby (contact lost)

1965

  • United States Ranger 8 – 17 February 1965 – Lunar impact
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 60 – 12 March 1965 – Attempted lunar lander (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Ranger 9 – 21 March 1965 – Lunar impact
  • Soviet Union Luna 5 – 9 May 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted soft landing)
  • Soviet Union Luna 6 – 8 June 1965 – Attempted lunar lander (missed Moon)
  • Soviet Union Zond 3 – 18 July 1965 – Lunar flyby
  • Soviet Union Luna 7 – 4 October 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted soft landing)
  • Soviet Union Venera 2 – 12 November 1965 – Venus flyby (contact lost)
  • Soviet Union Venera 3 – 16 November 1965 – Venus lander (contact lost) – the First spacecraft to reach another planet's surfaceFirst Venus impact
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 96 – 23 November 1965 – Attempted Venus lander (stayed in Earth orbit due to launch failure)
  • Soviet Union Luna 8 – 3 December 1965 – Lunar impact (attempted the soft landing?)
  • United States Pioneer 6 – 16 December 1965 – "Space weather" observations

1966

  • Soviet Union Luna 9 – 31 January 1966 – First lunar lander
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 111 – 1 March 1966 – Attempted lunar orbiter? (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Luna 10 – 31 March 1966 – First lunar orbiter
  • United States Surveyor 1 – 30 May 1966 – Lunar lander
  • United States Explorer 33 – 1 July 1966 – Attempted lunar orbiter (failed to attain lunar orbit)
  • United States Lunar Orbiter 1 – 10 August 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Pioneer 7 – 17 August 1966 – "Space weather" observations
  • Soviet Union Luna 11 – 24 August 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Surveyor 2 – 20 September 1966 – Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon)
  • Soviet Union Luna 12 – 22 October 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Lunar Orbiter 2 – 6 November 1966 – Lunar orbiter
  • Soviet Union Luna 13 – 21 December 1966 – Lunar lander

1967

  • United States Lunar Orbiter 3 – 4 February 1967 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Surveyor 3 – 17 April 1967 – Lunar lander
  • United States Lunar Orbiter 4 – 8 May 1967 – Lunar orbiter
  • Soviet Union Venera 4 – 12 June 1967 – First Venus atmospheric probe
  • United States Mariner 5 – 14 June 1967 – Venus flyby
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 167 – 17 June 1967 – Attempted Venus probe (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Surveyor 4 – 14 July 1967 – Attempted lunar lander (crashed into Moon)
  • United States Explorer 35 (IMP-E) – 19 July 1967 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Lunar Orbiter 5 – 1 August 1967 – Lunar orbiter
  • United States Surveyor 5 – 8 September 1967 – Lunar lander
  • United States Surveyor 6 – 7 November 1967 – Lunar lander
  • United States Pioneer 8 – 13 December 1967 – "Space weather" observations

1968

  • United States Surveyor 7 – 7 January 1968 – Lunar lander
  • Soviet Union Zond 4 – 2 March 1968 – Lunar programme test flight
  • Soviet Union Luna 14 – 7 April 1968 – Lunar orbiter
  • Soviet Union Zond 5 – 15 September 1968 – First lunar flyby and return to Earth
  • United States Pioneer 9 – 8 November 1968 – "Space weather" observations
  • Soviet Union Zond 6 – 10 November 1968 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  • United States Apollo 8 – 21 December 1968 – First manned lunar orbiter

1969

  • Soviet Union Venera 5 – 5 January 1969 – Venus atmospheric probe
  • Soviet Union Venera 6 – 10 January 1969 – Venus atmospheric probe
  • United States Mariner 6 – 25 February 1969 – Mars flyby
  • United States Apollo 9 – 3 March 1969 – Manned lunar lander (LEM) flight test
  • United States Mariner 7 – 27 March 1969 – Mars flyby
  • United States Apollo 10 – 18 May 1969 – Manned lunar orbiter
  • Soviet Union Luna 15 – 13 July 1969 – Lunar orbiter (attempted lunar lander?)
  • United States Apollo 11 – 16 July 1969 – First manned lunar landing
  • Soviet Union Zond 7 – 7 August 1969 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 300 – 23 September 1969 – Attempted lunar sample return? (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet UnionCosmos 305 – 22 October 1969 – Attempted lunar sample return? (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Apollo 12 – 14 November 1969 – Manned lunar landing

1970s

220px-Venera 11 lander
Venera 7 – First Venus lander
Mars 3 – First Mars lander
Pioneer 10 – First Jupiter flyby
Mariner 10 – First Mercury flyby
Voyager 2 – First Uranus/first Neptune flyby

1970

  • United States Apollo 13 – 11 April 1970 – Manned lunar flyby and return to Earth (manned lunar landing aborted)
  • Soviet Union Venera 7 – 17 August 1970 – First Venus lander
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 359 – 22 August 1970 – Attempted Venus probe (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • Soviet Union Luna 16 – 12 September 1970 – First robotic lunar sample return
  • Soviet Union Zond 8 – 20 October 1970 – Lunar flyby and return to Earth
  • Soviet Union Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 – 10 November 1970 – First lunar rover

1971

  • United States Apollo 14 – 31 January 1971 – Manned lunar landing
  • Soviet Union Salyut 1 – 19 April 1971 – First space station
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 419 – 10 May 1971 – Attempted Mars orbiter (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Mariner 9 – 30 May 1971 – First Mars orbiter
  • Soviet Union Mars 2 – 19 May 1971 – Mars orbiter and attempted lander; First Mars impact
  • Soviet Union Mars 3 – 28 May 1971 – Mars orbiter, First Mars lander (lost contact after 14.5s) and First Mars atmospheric probe
  • United States Apollo 15 – 26 July 1971 – Manned lunar landing; First manned lunar rover
  • Soviet Union Luna 18 – 2 September 1971 – Attempted lunar sample return (crashed into Moon)
  • Soviet Union Luna 19 – 28 September 1971 – Lunar orbiter

1972

  • Soviet Union Luna 20 – 14 February 1972 – Lunar robotic sample return
  • United States Pioneer 10 – 3 March 1972 – First Jupiter flyby
  • Soviet Union Venera 8 – 27 March 1972 – Venus lander
  • Soviet Union Cosmos 482 – 31 March 1972 – Attempted Venus probe (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Apollo 16 – 16 April 1972 – Manned lunar landing
  • United States Apollo 17 – 7 December 1972 – Last manned lunar landing

1973

  • Soviet Union Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 – 8 January 1973 – Lunar rover
  • United States Pioneer 11 – 5 April 1973 – Jupiter flyby and First Saturn flyby
  • United States Skylab – 14 May 1973 – First American space station
  • United States Explorer 49 (RAE-B) – 10 June 1973 – Lunar orbiter/radio astronomy
  • Soviet Union Mars 4 – 21 July 1973 – Mars flyby (attempted Mars orbiter)
  • Soviet Union Mars 5 – 25 July 1973 – Mars orbiter
  • Soviet Union Mars 6 – 5 August 1973 – Mars flyby and attempted lander (contact lost)
  • Soviet Union Mars 7 – 9 August 1973 – Mars flyby and attempted lander (missed Mars)
  • United States Mariner 10 – 4 November 1973 – Venus flyby and First Mercury flyby

1974

  • Soviet Union Luna 22 – 2 June 1974 – Lunar orbiter
  • Soviet Union Luna 23 – 28 October 1974 – Attempted lunar sample return (failed due to damage on lunar landing)
  • United States Germany Helios-A – 10 December 1974 – Solar observations

1975

  • Soviet Union Venera 9 – 8 June 1975 – First Venus orbiter and lander; First images from surface of Venus
  • Soviet Union Venera 10 – 14 June 1975 – Venus orbiter and lander
  • United States Viking 1 – 20 August 1975 – Mars orbiter and lander; First lander returning data and First pictures from Martian surface
  • United States Viking 2 – 9 September 1975 – Mars orbiter and lander

1976

  • United States Germany Helios-B – 15 January 1976 – Solar observations, Closest solar approach (0.29 AU)
  • Soviet Union Luna 24 – 9 August 1976 – Lunar robotic sample return

1977

  • United States Voyager 2 – 20 August 1977 – Jupiter/Saturn/first Uranus/first Neptune flyby
  • United States Voyager 1 – 5 September 1977 – Jupiter/Saturn flyby, Furthest human-made object – currently (2011) over 117 AU

1978

  • United States Pioneer Venus 1 – 20 May 1978 – Venus orbiter
  • United States Pioneer Venus 2 – 8 August 1978 – Venus atmospheric probes
  • United States European Union ISEE-3 – 12 August 1978 – Solar wind investigations; later redesignated International Cometary Explorer and performed Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley flybys – First comet flyby
  • Soviet Union Venera 11 – 9 September 1978 – Venus flyby and lander
  • Soviet Union Venera 12 – 14 September 1978 – Venus flyby and lander

1980s

Giotto – Comet Halley flyby

1981

  • Soviet Union Venera 13 – 30 October 1981 – Venus flyby and lander
  • Soviet Union Venera 14 – 4 November 1981 – Venus flyby and lander

1983

  • Soviet Union Venera 15 – 2 June 1983 – Venus orbiter
  • Soviet Union Venera 16 – 7 June 1983 – Venus orbiter

1984

  • Soviet Union Vega 1 – 15 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby
  • Soviet Union Vega 2 – 21 December 1984 – Venus flyby, lander and balloon; continued on to Comet Halley flyby

1985

Galileo
  • Japan Sakigake – 7 January 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  • European Union Giotto – 2 July 1985 – Comet Halley flyby
  • Japan Suisei (Planet-A) – 18 August 1985 – Comet Halley flyby

1988

  • Soviet Union Phobos 1 – 7 July 1988 – Attempted Mars orbiter/Phobos landers (contact lost)
  • Soviet Union Phobos 2 – 12 July 1988 – Mars orbiter/attempted Phobos landers (contact lost)

1989

  • United States Magellan – 4 May 1989 – Venus orbiter
  • United States Galileo – 18 October 1989 – Venus flyby, first Asteroid flyby, first Asteroid moon discovery, first Jupiter orbiter/atmospheric probe

1990s

1990

Mars Pathfinder – Mars lander and first Mars rover
  • Japan Hiten (Muses-A) – 24 January 1990 – Lunar flyby and orbiter
  • United States European Union Hubble Space Telescope – Orbital space telescope
  • United States European Union Ulysses – 6 October 1990 – Solar polar orbiter

1991

  • Japan United States United Kingdom Yohkoh (Solar-A) – 30 August 1991 – Solar observations

1992

  • United States Mars Observer – 25 September 1992 – Attempted Mars orbiter (contact lost)

1994

  • United States Clementine – 25 January 1994 – Lunar orbiter/attempted asteroid flyby
  • United States WIND – 1 November 1994 – Solar wind observations

1995

  • European Union United States SOHO – 2 December 1995 – Solar observatory

1996

  • United States NEAR Shoemaker – 17 February 1996 – Eros orbiter, first near-Earth asteroid flybyfirst asteroid orbit and first asteroid landing
  • United States Mars Global Surveyor – 7 November 1996 – Mars orbiter
  • Russia Mars 96 – 16 November 1996 – Attempted Mars orbiter/landers (failed to escape Earth orbit)
  • United States Mars Pathfinder – 4 December 1996 – Mars lander and first planetary rover

1997

Cassini–Huygens – First Saturn orbiter and first Titan lander
  • United States ACE – 25 August 1997 – Solar wind and "space weather" observations
  • United States European Union Cassini–Huygens – 15 October 1997 – First Saturn orbiter and first outer planet lander
  • China AsiaSat 3/HGS-1 – 24 December 1997 – Lunar flyby

1998

  • United States Lunar Prospector – 7 January 1998 – Lunar orbiter
  • Japan Nozomi (probe) (also known as Planet-B) – 3 July 1998 – Attempted Mars orbiter (failed to enter Mars orbit)
  • United States Deep Space 1 (DS1) – 24 October 1998 – Asteroid and comet flyby
  • United States Russia European Union Japan Canada – 20 November 1998 – International Space Station
  • United States Mars Climate Orbiter – 11 December 1998 – Attempted Mars orbiter (orbit insertion failed)

1999

  • United States Mars Polar Lander/Deep Space 2 (DS2) – 3 January 1999 – Attempted Mars lander/penetrators (contact lost)
  • United States Stardust – 7 February 1999 – First comet coma sample return – returned January 15, 2006

2000s

Mars Express/Beagle 2 – First planetary mission by the ESA
 

2001

  • United States 2001 Mars Odyssey – 7 April 2001 – Mars orbiter
  • United States Genesis – 8 August 2001 – First solar wind sample return

2002

  • United States CONTOUR – 3 July 2002 – Attempted flyby of three comet nuclei (lost in space)

2003

  • Japan Hayabusa (Muses-C) – 9 May 2003 – Asteroid lander and First sample return from asteroid
  • United States Mars Exploration Rovers – 10 June/7 July 2003 – Two Mars rovers ("Spirit" and "Opportunity")
  • European Union Mars Express/Beagle 2 – 1 June 2003 – Mars orbiter/lander (lander failure)
  • European Union Sweden SMART-1 – 27 September 2003 – Lunar orbiter
  • China Shenzhou 5 – 15 October 2003 – China's first manned Earth orbiter

2004

  • European Union Rosetta – 2 March 2004 – Comet orbiter and lander (expected arrival 2014)
  • United States MESSENGER – 3 August 2004 – First Mercury orbiter (achieved orbit 18 March 2011)

2005

  • United States Deep Impact – 12 January 2005 – First comet impact
  • United States Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter – 12 August 2005 – Mars orbiter
  • European Union Venus Express – 9 November 2005 – Venus polar orbiter

2006

  • United States New Horizons – 19 January 2006 – First Pluto/Charon and Kuiper Belt flyby (expected arrival 14 July 2015)
  • Japan United States United Kingdom Hinode (Solar-B) – 22 September 2006 – Solar orbiter
  • United States STEREO – 26 October 2006 – Two spacecraft, solar orbiters

2007

  • United States Phoenix – 4 August 2007 – Mars polar lander
  • Japan Kaguya (Selene) – 14 September 2007 – Lunar orbiters
  • United States Dawn – 27 September 2007 – Asteroid Ceres and Vesta orbiter (entered orbit around Vesta on 16 July 2011)
  • China Change 1 – 24 October 2007 – Lunar orbiter

2008

  • China Shenzhou 7 – 25 September 2008 – China's first spacewalk
  • India Chandrayaan-1 – 22 October 2008 – Lunar orbiter and impactor – Discovered water on the moon

2009

  • United States Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter/LCROSS – 18 June 2009 – Lunar polar orbiter and lunar impactor

[edit]the 2010s

2010

  • United States Solar Dynamics Observatory – 11 February 2010 – Continuous solar monitoring
  • Japan Akatsuki (Planet-C) – 20 May 2010 – Venus orbiter (orbit insertion failed in 2010 / postponed to 2016–17)
  • France PICARD – 15 June 2010 – Solar orbiter
  • China Change 2 – 1 October 2010 – Lunar orbiter

2011

  • United States Juno – 5 August 2011 – Jupiter orbiter
  • United States GRAIL – 10 September 2011 – Two spacecraft, Lunar orbiters

[edit]Planned or scheduled

2011

  • China Tiangong 1 – September 2011 – First Chinese orbital laboratory
  • United States Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover – November/December 2011 (scheduled) – Mars Rover
  • Russia China Phobos-Grunt and Yinghuo-1 – November 2011 – Phobos orbiter, lander and sample return (Russia), Mars orbiter (China)

2012

  • India Aditya – Solar observations
  • India Astros – Space observatory

2013

  • United States LADEE – 15 January 2013 (scheduled) – Lunar orbiter
  • United States MAVEN – November/December 2013 – Mars orbiter
  • China Change 3 – Lunar rover
  • European Union Don Quijote – 2013 or 2015 – Asteroid orbiter, impactor

2014

  • European Union Japan BepiColombo – July–August 2014 – Mercury orbiters
  • Japan Hayabusa 2 – July 2014 – Asteroid lander and sample return
  • India Russia Chandrayaan-2 and Luna-Glob 2 – Lunar orbiter (India), lander & rover (Russia)[1]
  • Russia Luna-Grunt 1 – Lunar orbiter, lander and rover

2015

  • Russia Luna-Glob 1 – Lunar orbiter, lander and penetrators
  • Russia Luna-Grunt 2 – Lunar lander and sample return
  • Japan SELENE-2 – <2015 – Lunar lander and penetrator

2016

  • European Union United States ExoMars – Mars orbiter and lander
  • United States OSIRIS-REx – Asteroid sample return mission[2]
  • Russia Venera-D – Venus orbiter
  • India ISRO Orbital Vehicle – First Indian manned orbiter[3]

2017

  • European Union SOLO – January 2017 – Solar Orbiter
  • China Change 4 – Robotic lunar sample return mission[citation needed]

2018

  • United States Solar Probe Plus – July 30, 2018 – Solar Orbiter, Closest solar approach (0.04 AU)
  • European Union ExoMars – Mars Rover
  • European Union MoonNext – Lunar Lander
  • United States International Lunar Network – Lunar lander

2020

  • European Union MarcoPolo-R – Asteroid sample return mission
  • India Manned landing on Moon[4]
  • United States European Union Mars sample return mission
  • European Union Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer – Mission to explore Jupiter and its icy moons.
  • China Tiangong (Project 921-2) – First Chinese space station[3]
  • Russia Lunny Poligon – Russian robotic lunar base
  • United States European Union Titan Saturn System Mission – after 2020 – Exploration of Saturn and its moons Titan and Enceladus. Orbiter, lander, ballon.

2025

  • United States Manned landing on an Asteroid[2]
  • China Manned landing on Moon (2020–30?)[5]
  • Russia Manned lunar mission[6]

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